Term Project

Research paper

World View

Fifteen Decisive Battles



Women in History

Military Leaders


Roman Government

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Scotch Irish Timeline


Chapter One Study Guide and Map
Chapter One Notes

Chapter Two Study Guide
Chapter Two Notes

Chapter Three Study Guide and Map

Chapter Four
Chapter Four Notes

Chapter 5"
Chapter Five Notes

Chapter 6
Chapter Six Notes

Chapter 7
Chapter Seven Notes

Chapter 8
Chapter 8 Notes

Chapter Nine
Chapter Nine Notes

Chapter 10
Chapter Ten Notes

Chapter 11
Chapter Eleven Notes

Chapter 12
Chapter Twelve Notes

Chapter 13
Chapter Thirteen Notes

Chapter 14
Chapter Fourteen Notes




B.C. Before Christ
A.D. anno Domini (Year of Our Lord)
B.C.E. Before Common Era
C.E. Common Era


Dates to Remember
Jericho the oldest city abt. 8000 years ago
Catal Huyuk 6700-5700 B.C.
Great Pyramid at Giza 2540 B.C.
Stonehenge 2100-1900 B.C.
Hammurabi 1792-1750 B.C.
Hyksos ca. 1630-1567
Tutmosis III 1480-1247
Tell el-Amarna 1364-1347 B.C.

Invention of the Wheel  The oldest wheel found in archeological excavations was discovered in what was Mesopotamia and is believed to be over fifty-five hundred years old.  (Making the invention about 3000 B.C.-- a little earlier than the time of the building of the Great Pyramid.)

Chapter Outline 

I. First Humans 

     A. Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age
 (Paleolithic Age  2,500,000 years to 10,000 years ago
Australopithecines (simple stone tools) 2-4 million years ago 
Homo erectus 100,000 to 1.5 million years ago
Homo sapiens:
Neanderthals flourished c. 100,000-30,000 B.C.
Homo sapiens sapiens Emerged c. 200,000

           1. Nomads


Homo sapiens sapiens spread from Africa beginning about 100,000 years ago. Living and traveling in small groups, these anatomically modern humans were hunter-gatherers. Although groups of people advanced beyond their old hunting grounds at a rate of only 2 or 3 miles per generation, this was enough to populate the world in some tens of thousands of years.

Mount Ararat 

           2. Caves

Chauvet  Pont d'Arc

           3. Tools and Fire  

Began to use fire about 250,000 years ago.  Making of tools and the use of fire remind us how crucial the ability to adapt was to human survival.

     B. Neolithic Revolution  End of the Ice Age (abt. 10,000 years ago) 

           1. Food Production 
Mtile.gif (40765 bytes)
Early cylinder seal depicting beer production


"There is a perfectly respectable academic theory that civilization began with beer,"  
Animals were domesticated 
Agricultural villages grew in size
men came to play a more dominant role in society 
Pottery came into use

           2. First Towns 

Catal Huyuk A Neolithic walled community sustained by food surpluses 
Jericho 8-10,000 years old  One of the oldest known agricultural villages, located in Palestine 
           3. Homes and Families-- Rough equality between men and women

           4. Technological Advances 

Bronze replaced copper because it was stronger.

II. Emergence of Civilization (complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a variety of common elements.  Basic characteristics:

     A. Urban Life cities become the centers of political, economic, social, cultural and religious development

By 3100 B.C., an administrative structure, complete with writing and formal record keeping, was already evident in Egypt, and by 2700 B.C., it was present throughout the states of Mesopotamia. Although these structures were probably first employed on large scale public works projects -- building dikes, irrigation systems, the pyramids, and ziggurats of ancient Sumer -- it was but a short step to employ these new organizational resources in the service of warfare.

The development of central state institutions and a supporting administrative apparatus inevitably gave form and stability to military structures. The result was the expansion and stabilization of the formerly loose and unstable warrior castes that first emerged in the tribal societies of the fifth millennium. By 2700 B.C. in Sumer there was a fully articulated military structure and standing army organized along modern lines. The standing army emerged as a permanent part of the social structure and was endowed with strong claims to social legitimacy. And it has been with us ever since.

     B. Religious Structures gods deemed crucial to the community's success, and professional priestly classes, as stewards of the gods' property, regulated relations with the gods

     C. Political and Military Structures an organized governmental bureaucracy arose to meet the administrative demands of the growing population, and armies were organized to gain land and power

Thanks to Maxwell-Gunter AFB, the Home of Air University and the 42nd Air Base Wing  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/gabrmetz/gabr0002.htm

The invention and spread of agriculture coupled with the domestication of animals in the fifth millennium B.C. are acknowledged as the developments that set the stage for the emergence of the first large-scale, complex urban societies. These societies, which appeared almost simultaneously around 4000 B.C. in both Egypt and Mesopotamia, used stone tools, but within 500 years stone tools and weapons gave way to bronze. With bronze manufacture came a revolution in warfare

This period saw the development of many new weapons -- the penetrating axe, armor, helmet, composite bow, the wheel and chariot -- and gave birth to a number of tactical innovations -- phalanx formations, increased mobility, pursuit, emergent staffs and rank structures. It would be incorrect to conclude, however, that new weapons were responsible for the great increase in the scale of warfare that characterized this period of human history. Improved weaponry, by itself, would have produced only a limited increase in the scale of warfare unless accompanied by new types of social structures capable of sustaining large armies and providing them with the impetus and means to fight on a heretofore unknown scale. The military revolution of the Bronze Age was rooted more in the development of truly complex societies than in weapons and technology.

As important as these developments were, they could not have worked as they did without a profound change in the psychological basis of the people's social relationship with the larger community. The aggregation of large numbers of people into complex societies required that those living within them refocus their allegiances away from the extended family, clan, and tribe, and toward a larger social entity, the state. This psychological change was facilitated by the rise of religious castes that gave meaning to the individual's life beyond a parochial context. Organized belief systems were integrated into the social order and given institutional expression through public rituals that linked religious worship to political and military objectives that were national in scope and definition. Thus, the Egyptian pharaoh became divine, and military achievements of great leaders were perceived as divinely ordained or inspired. In this manner the terribly propulsive power of religion was placed at the service of the state and its armies.


It is important to remember that the period from 4000 to 2000 B.C. was a truly seminal period in the development of the institution and instrumentalities of war. When this period began, people had not yet invented cities or any of the other social structures required to support communal life on a large scale. Agriculture, which became the basis for the nation-state in the ancient period, was still in its infancy and could not yet provide a food supply adequate to sustain populations of even moderate size. Psychologically, people had not yet learned to attach meaning to any social group larger than the extended family, clan, or tribe. The important force of religion had not yet been given specific social focus to the point where it could become a powerful psychological engine to drive the spirit of conquest and empire. Even warfare itself had not in any meaningful sense been invented. There were only the embryonic beginnings of a warrior class still loosely embedded in a tribal social structure, a structure that lacked both the physical and psychological requirements to produce war on any scale. Military technology and organization were primitive, and the professionalization of armies and warfare had not yet begun. In any significant sense warfare had not yet been embedded in the social structure of man as a legitimate and permanent function of developed society.


The two thousand years following the dawn of the fourth millennium changed all this. As a mechanism of cultural development, the conduct of war became a legitimate social function supported by an extensive institutional infrastructure, and it became an indispensable characteristic of the social order if people were to survive the predatory behavior of others. This period saw the emergence of the whole range of social, political, economic, psychological, and military technologies that made the conduct of war a relatively normal part of social existence. In less than two thousand years, man went from a condition in which warfare was relatively rare and mostly ritualistic in which combat death and destruction were suffered at low rates to one in which death and destruction were attained on a modern scale. In this period, warfare assumed modern proportions in terms of size of the armies involved, the administrative mechanisms needed to sustain them, the development of weapons, the frequency of occurrence, and the scope of destruction achievable by military force. And it was in Sumer and Egypt that the world witnessed the emergence of the world's first armies.

More on the world's first armies: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/gabrmetz/gabr0001.htm

     D. Socio-economic Structures --new social structure developed based on economic power: while kings and an upper class of priests, political leaders, and warriors dominated there also existed a large group of free people (farmers, artisans, craftspeople) and at the very bottom socially, a class of slaves

Commerce and industry were important, second only to agriculture.  Slaves on the whole were well treated.  The economy was divided into both public and private sectors.  The most prominent structures were temples.

     E. Writing  

Mainly for record keeping for kings, priests, merchants, and artisans

     F. Artistic and Intellectual Activities 

Outstanding achievements in mathematics and astronomy. Monumental architectural structures, usually religious, occupied a prominent place in urban environments.

     G. Civilizations of India, China, and South America 

III. Civilization in Mesopotamia 
     A. City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia 
           I. Sumerians 

           2. Kingship and Ancient Religion

Polytheistic (had many gods) An (god of Sky), Enlil (god of Wind) Enki (god of the earth)          Ninhursaga (goddess of the soil, earth, mountains)
Believed that gods ruled the cities: theocracy 
Most prominent building...the temple built above a ziggurat 
Sumerians came to view their kings as agents of their gods. 
Were plagued by incessant warfare between their many city-states 
Kings derived their authority from their military victories over the "barbarians" 
The physical environment of the Mesopotamians generally led to a pessimistic outlook with an emphasis on satisfying their angry gods. 
Mesopotamian religion was one in which no one god reigned supreme and deities were closely related to cities. 

           3. Economy 

Commerce and industry were important next to agriculture 
The economy was divided into both public and private sectors 
A small percentage of the population was literate 
The basic unit of early Mesopotamian civilization was the city-state 

           4. Class System 

Several different social groups owned slaves
The clearest statement concerning Mesopotamian social hierarchy is found in the Laws of Hammurabi (circa 1750 B.C.E.), which provided for three separate—and unequal—tiers: the awilum (freeman), generally thought to be an individual owning his means of support; the mushkenum (dependent, or serf), who presumably did not own his means of earning a living and worked land owned by another; and the wardum (slave), who was the property of his owner

     B. Mesopotamian Empires 

           1. Sumer Ancient Mesopotamia, the land between two rivers, was a city-state civilization created by a people known as the Sumerians.

           2. Sargon and Akkadia 

Located on flat plains, the Sumerian city states were vulnerable to invasion resulting in a series of empires beginning with the Akkadians c. 2340 BC

Sargon of Akkad was an ancient Mesopotamian ruler who  reigned approximately 2334-2279 BC, and was one of the earliest of the world's great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region's first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition.

The Akkadians were Semites, that is, they spoke a language drawn from a family of languages called Semitic languages (the term "Semite" is a modern designation taken from the Hebrew Scriptures; Shem was a son of Noah and the nations descended from Shem are the Semites). These languages include Hebrew, Arabic, Assyrian, and Babylonian. After the final end of Sumerian power and civilization around 2000 BC, the area came under the exclusive control of Semitic peoples for centuries.

           3. Hammurabi and Babylon

 Later the Babylonians followed.  They were famous for their ruler Hammurabi.
Babylon (2000 - 323 BC), an ancient city of Mesopotamia located on the Euphrates River about 55mi (89km) south of present day Baghdad. Settled since prehistoric times. it was made the capital of Babylonia by Hammurabi (1792 ­ 1750 BC) in the 18th century BC. The city was completely destroyed in 689 BC by the Assyrians under Sennacherib. After restoration it flourished and became noted for its hanging gardens, one of the seven wonders of the world.

     C. Hammurabi' s Code  Was a harsh code but provided some justice for all citizens 
The Code of Hammurabi sought to achieve financial liability, military stability, commercial integrity and stable sexual relationships.   It established order through a well-understood set of laws.   It contained specific regulations on marriage, adultery, incest and divorce. 

The foundation of all law-making in Babylonia from about the middle of the twenty-third century B.C. to the fall of the empire was the code of Hammurabi, the first king of all Babylonia. He expelled invaders from his dominions, cemented the union of north and south Babylonia, made Babylon the capital, and thus consolidated an empire which endured for almost twenty centuries.

The code which he compiled is the oldest known in history, older by nearly a thousand years than the Mosaic, and of earlier date than the so-called Laws of Manu. It is one of the most important historical landmarks in existence, a document which gives us knowledge not otherwise furnished of the country and people, the civilization and life of a great centre of human action hitherto almost hidden in obscurity. Hammurabi, who is supposed to be identical with Amraphel, a contemporary of Abraham, is regarded as having certainly contributed through his laws to the Hebrew traditions.

           I. "An Eye for an Eye"  Punishments more severe for lower classes 

           2. Resp
babylonia1.jpg (23563 bytes)onsibilities of Public Officials 

           3. Consumer Protection 

           4. Commerce 

Produced woolen textiles, pottery and metalwork.  The Invention of the wheel about 3000 B.C. led to the development of carts with wheels that made the transport of goods easier.

           5. Women Role was to be at home and be subservient to her husband.  Women held inherited property, even in marriage.  They could be pharaohs.  Upper class women could be priests.  And women could operate businesses.

           6. Sex and the Family 

     D. Mesopotamian Culture 

           1. Religion The Epic of Gilgamesh teaches that everlasting life is reserved only for the gods.
                a. Ziggurats 
                b. The Power of Nature 
                c. Polytheism 
                d. Divination           
           2. Writing 
The oldest Mesopotamian texts date to around 3000 B.C. and were written by the Sumerians

                a. Cuneiform--the writing was originally pictographic but became cuneiform 
                b. Record-keeping 

           3. Literature: Epic of Gilgamesh 
Teaches that human life is difficult and immorality is only for the gods 

4. Mathematics and Astronomy 

IV. Egyptian Civilization: "The Gift of the Nile" 
      A. The Nile River 
The Nile River provided ancient Egyptians with an excellent artery of transportation. 
The focal points and sources of life for the ancient Egyptians were the Nile River and the Pharaohs.  
      B. Natural Barriers 
      C. Old and Middle Kingdoms 
Ancient Egyptian History is divided into three major periods:  Old Kingdom , Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom 
            1. Old Kingdom (2686-2125) 
                a. Kingship 
According to Egyptian theology, the pharaoh derived his authority from the fact that he was perceived as a divine instrument of order and harmony. 
Egyptian pharaohs ruled and derived their authority from the principle of Ma'at. 
                b. Ma 'at (Right order and Harmony)  
                c. Nomes (Provinces) 

For administrtive purposes in the Old Kingeom, Egypt was divided into provinces called nomes and governed by nomarchs. 

           2. Middle Kingdom (2055-1650) 

                a. Order out of Chaos 
Egypts Middle Kingdom was portrayed by Egyptians as a golden age of Egyptian society. 

                b. Pharaoh as Shepherd 

"He [a particular god] created me as one who should do that which he had done, and to carry out that which he commanded should be done.  He appointed me herdsman of this land, for he knew who would keep it in order for him." 
Egypt's Middle Kingdom saw the pharaohs provide more for the public welfare.  

                c. Expansion 

      D. Society and Economy 
            1. Nobles and Priests 

            2. Merchants and Artisans 
            3. Farmers 
The economy of ancient Egypt relied most heavily upon agriculture. 
In comparison to Mesopotamian society, Egyptian society was more rural. 
     E. Egyptian Culture 

            1. Spiritual Life of the Gods 

                a. Atum-Re 
                b. Osiris and Isis 

Osiris was the Egyptian god most closely associated with the mummification of the dead.  Generally the Osiris cult was reserved for the wealthy who could afford preservation of the body.  Osiris eventually came to be identified as the judge of the dead. Osiris was Egypt's judge of the dead who was killed by his brother Seth and restored to life by his sister Isis.

           2. Pyramids 

                a. Preservation of the Pharaohs 

The Egyptian Pyramids were conceived and built as tombs for a city of the dead. 

                b. Great Pyramid at Giza 

           3. Art and Writing 

                a. Formulism 

Egyptian art was primarily functional and not intended to add beauty.  It was highly stylized.  It followed strict formulas governing form and presentation and often glorified the pharaohs. 

                b. Hieroglyphics   "sacred writing" of Egyptian priests, composed of stylized pictures, preserved on stone monuments, wood panels, and papyrus rolls.

     F. Chaos and a New Order 
           1. Hyksos (Misspelled on handouts) 
The Hyksos were a Semitic-speaking people who infiltrated Egypt in the seventeenth century B.C. from the Arabian desert.  The Hyksos did eventually utilize superior bronze weapons, chariots and composite bows to help them take control of Egypt, though in reality, the relative slowness of their advance southwards from the Delta seems to support the argument that the process was gradual and did not ultimately turn on the possession of overwhelming military superiority. 
           2. New Kingdom 
During the imperialistic New Kingdom, Egyptian government changed by a general lessening in the power of pharaohs over their neighbors.   
In the thirteenth century the Egyptians were driven out of Palestine and back to their original frontiers by the "Sea Peoples".   
                a. Ahmose I Founder of the 18th Dynasty 
(r. c.1570-1546 BCE), was the founder of the 18th dynasty, one of the most outstanding in the history of ancient Egypt. His principal achievement was to weaken the Hyksos, who had dominated Lower Egypt for some 300 years, by taking Avaris, their citadel in the north. He pursued them into southern Palestine and laid siege to Sharuhen for three years. On his campaign in Upper Egypt against rebels great slaughter was recorded in all the battles 
                b. Tuthmosis III 
(c.1504-1450 BCE) was very young when his father, Thutmose II, died and was until 1482 the co-regent of his aunt, Hatshepsut. When he became sole monarch, he tried to erase the memory of Hatshepsut by destroying many of the monuments which bore her name or effigy. From 1482 onwards, he devoted himself to the expansion of the Egyptian empire, leading many campaigns into Canaan, Phoenicia and Syria.  
                c. Amenhotep III 
ruled (c.1417-1379 BCE) Egypt at the height of its power. His extensive diplomatic contacts with other Near Eastern states, especially Mitanni and Babylonia, are revealed in the Amarna tablets.  Ancient locality, Egypt, near the Nile and c.60 mi (100 km) N of Asyut. Ikhnaton’s capital, Akhetaton, was in Tell el Amarna. About 400 tablets with inscriptions in Akkadian cuneiform were found there in 1887. They constitute correspondence between Amenhotep III and Ikhnaton and the governors of the cities in Palestine and Syria, and they shed much light on ancient Egypt and the Middle East. The tablets are mostly in the Berlin, British, and Cairo museums. 
                d. Amenhotep IV and Aten 
(c. 1379-1361), was invested as king not in the Amen temple at Karnak as custom dictated, but at Hermonthis, where his uncle Inen was High Priest of Re and immediately began building a roofless temple to the Aten, the disk of the rising sun. He soon forbade the worship of other gods, especially of the state god Amen of Thebes.  He is best known for the temporary installation of the god of the sun disk in Egyptian culture. Taking the name Akhenaten he established a new city called Akhetaten, 200 miles from Thebes.   

                 e. Rameses II (c. 1304-1237 BCE) is remembered for his military campaigns and his extensive building program  
Ramses was responsible for building many large temples, most notably that at Abu Simbel in Nubia. He also founded a new royal capital at Per-Ramesse ("the house of Ramses") in the eastern Nile delta. During his long reign--24 years old to 98 years old-- Ramses had more than 100 children, and by his death in 1237, he had outlived his 11 eldest sons. 

Rameses referred to his beloved first wife Nefertari as, "The one for whom the sun shines."  Also poetry written by Ramesses about his dead wife is featured on some of the walls of her burial chamber. ("My love is unique - no one can rival her, for she is the most beautiful woman alive. Just by passing, she has stolen away my heart.")

 Ramses II", who reigned for 67 years during the 19th dynasty of the 12th century BC, was known as "Ramses the Great". His glories surpassed all other Pharaohs, and Egypt reached an overwhelming state of prosperity during his reign. Not only is he known as one of Egypt's greatest warriors, but also as a peace-maker and for the monuments he left behind all over Egypt. He was the first king in history to sign a peace treaty with his enemies, the Hittites, ending long years of wars and hostility. The treaty can still be considered a conclusive model, even when applying today’s standards

It is widely believed that Ramses II is the pharaoh of Moses time referred to in the Bible.  At least as early as Eusebius of Caesarea, he was identified with the pharaoh of whom the Biblical figure Moses is popularly believed to have demanded that his people be released from slavery.

     G. Daily Life in Ancient Egypt 

           1. Home and Family (read p. 26 Father's advice to his son)
In Egypt women had many equal legal rights with men .  The upper classes devoted much time to entertainment.  The wife's primary role in the family was to produce children.  Polygamy was the rule.   
           2. Women: Hatshepsut 
d. c.1482 BCE, was one of the few women to rule Egypt as a pharaoh. After the death (c.1504) of her husband, Thutmose II, she assumed power, first as regent for his son Thutmose III, and then (c.1503) as pharaoh. She encouraged commercial expansion, sent a trading expedition to Punt and sponsored a major building program overseen by Senenmut; the monuments of her reign include the temple at Deir el-Bahri. Toward the end of her reign she lost influence to Thutmose III who came to be depicted as her equal. 
           3. Material Abundance 
Kept entire population fed.  Wealthy apparently enjoyed lavish lifestyle.

            4. Entertainment 
Music, hunting, fowling, board games

V. On the Fringes of Civilization  

    A. Megaliths (Stonehenge ) Growing appreciation of astronomy among Europeans after 4000 B.C. is best seen in megalithic observatories, the most famous of which is Stonehenge.  One of the most significant features of the late Neolithic period in Europe was the building of megalithic (large stone) structures around 4000 BCE, more than a thousand years before the great pyramids of Egypt. The most famous of the megalithic sites is Stonehenge in England. Its first phase, a large earthwork of bank and ditch arrangement (called a henge), was constructed about 5000 years ago. About 2000 BCE, the first stone circle (the inner circle) was built. Inside these two circles lies a horseshoe structure. The whole structure was probably completed about 1500 BCE.

     B. Indo-Europeans (The Hittites)     
The original Indo Europeans possibly came from the steppe region north of the Black Sea. .  Sanskrit, German, Latin and Greek are Indo-European languages.   
The Hittites Empire stretched from Mesopotamia to Syria and Palestine.
 Their invasion spelled the end of the Old Babylonian empire in Mesopotamia.
The Hittite civilization dominated Mesopotamia from 1600 BC to 1200 BC.
The Hittites were a warrior people noted for their ferocity.
The Hittites were the first (if not the very first) to domesticate horses and harness them to chariots.
 They invented iron which was used to forge weapons.
 They transmitted Mesopotamian culture to the west especially to the Mycenaean Greeks.  .

Especially notable in the Hittite New Kingdom or Hitite Empire (1370- 1330 BC) was Supiluliumas I who established Hitite control from Western Turkey to northern Syria.

Hittites were in conflict with Egypt until Ramses II negotiated a remarkable non-aggression treaty. 

Hittites were finally brought down by their own internal problems and the "Sea Peoples".

Scholars  believe that the Minoans of Crete were overtaken by the Mycenaean Greeks sometime in the fifteenth century

Send comments and questions to Sharman Ramsey, Gulf Coast Community College