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Introduction

Syllabus

Term Project

Research paper

World View

Fifteen Decisive Battles

Government

Pedagogy

Women in History

Military Leaders

Quotations

Roman Government

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Scotch Irish Timeline

Dates

Chapter One Study Guide and Map
Chapter One Notes

Chapter Two Study Guide
Chapter Two Notes

Chapter Three Study Guide and Map
Notes

Chapter Four
Chapter Four Notes

Chapter 5"
Chapter Five Notes

Chapter 6
Chapter Six Notes

Chapter 7
Chapter Seven Notes

Chapter 8
Chapter 8 Notes

Chapter Nine
Chapter Nine Notes

Chapter 10
Chapter Ten Notes

Chapter 11
Chapter Eleven Notes
 

Chapter 12
Chapter Twelve Notes

Chapter 13
Chapter Thirteen Notes

Chapter 14
Chapter Fourteen Notes

 

 

 

Chapter Two Notes

Begin with review:  Invention of the Wheel  The oldest wheel found in archeological excavations was discovered in what was Mesopotamia and is believed to be over fifty-five hundred years old.  (Making the invention about 3000 B.C.-- a little earlier than the time of the building of the Great Pyramid.)
Timeline of Egypt:  http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/index.html


Keystone used by the Sumerians enabled the building of arches--In the seventh century BC the Sumerians used five such corbelled arches to take an aqueduct across a 20-metre-wide valley. This was the first recorded arch bridge - rather clumsy by modern standards">

 

Home

Introduction

Syllabus

Term Project

Research paper

World View

Fifteen Decisive Battles

Government

Pedagogy

Women in History

Military Leaders

Quotations

Roman Government

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Scotch Irish Timeline

Dates

Chapter One Study Guide and Map
Chapter One Notes

Chapter Two Study Guide
Chapter Two Notes

Chapter Three Study Guide and Map
Notes

Chapter Four
Chapter Four Notes

Chapter 5"
Chapter Five Notes

Chapter 6
Chapter Six Notes

Chapter 7
Chapter Seven Notes

Chapter 8
Chapter 8 Notes

Chapter Nine
Chapter Nine Notes

Chapter 10
Chapter Ten Notes

Chapter 11
Chapter Eleven Notes
 

Chapter 12
Chapter Twelve Notes

Chapter 13
Chapter Thirteen Notes

Chapter 14
Chapter Fourteen Notes

 

 

 

Chapter Two Notes

Begin with review:  Invention of the Wheel  The oldest wheel found in archeological excavations was discovered in what was Mesopotamia and is believed to be over fifty-five hundred years old.  (Making the invention about 3000 B.C.-- a little earlier than the time of the building of the Great Pyramid.)
Timeline of Egypt:  http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/index.html


Keystone used by the Sumerians enabled the building of arches--In the seventh century BC the Sumerians used five such corbelled arches to take an aqueduct across a 20-metre-wide valley. This was the first recorded arch bridge - rather clumsy by modern standards, but such is all innovation when viewed with hindsight. 

  • By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had established a number of independent cities in Mesopotamia with an economy based on farming as well as industry and trade.
  • Sumerians made great contributions to civilization in many areas: they invented the arch and dome and built great brick buildings in large cities; they organized a structure of government to direct people in public works and irrigation projects; they invented the wheel and built carts; they developed the cuneiform system of writing and a system of numbers based on 60; and they worked in astrology.
     

Roman-style aqueducts were used as early as the 7th century BC, when the Assyrians built a limestone aqueduct 30 feet (10 m) high and 900 feet (300 m) long to carry water across a valley to their capital city, Nineveh (now lying in the modern city of Mosul, Iraq) the full length of the aqueduct ran for 50 miles (80 km).

CHAPTER TWO
THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST: PEOPLES AND EMPIRES


 


Chapter Outline

Dates to remember
Exodus:  1300-1200 B.C.
David king 1000-970 B.C.
Building of Solomon's Temple 970-930 B.C.
Northern Kingdom of Israel destroyed by the Assyrians 722 B.C.
Zoroaster 660 B.C.
Fall of Jerusalem 586 B.C.
Cyrus king of Persia 550-530

Music of the Near East  musical fragments found on cuneiform tablets in Ugarit, stemming from the 12th century BC

The decline of the Hittites and Egyptians around 1200 B.C. created a power vacuum which allowed several small states to emerge and temporarily flourish. 
In the long run, these large empires had less impact on Western civilization than the Hebrew people. In human history, the power of ideas is often more significant than the power of empires. Jackson Spielvogel

I. Hebrews: "The Children of Israel"  Monotheistic  The Israelites were a minor factor in the politics of the ancient Near East, but their spiritual heritage--the Judeo Christian values--is one of the basic pillars of Western Civilization.

Genealogy

The tradition of the Hebrews states that they were descendants of the patriarch Abraham who had migrated from Mesopotamia to the land of Palestine.  Scholars agree that between 1200 and 1000 B.C. the Israelites emerged as a distinct group of peoples who established a united kingdom known as Israel.  The Exodus in the Old Testament refers to the Hebrews' flight from Egypt under the guidance of Moses in the first half of the thirteenth century B.C..  They were monotheistic
      A. United Kingdom
            1. Saul, the First King
Solomon's most revered contribution to the Hebrew society was to construct the Temple, the symbolic center of the Hebrew religion and society.  After the death of Solomon, tensions between the northern and southern tribes led to the establishment of two kingdoms, the kingdom of Israel and Judah. 
           
David, when he was 17, killed Goliath. (from a statue in Tower of David, Jersualem) 2. David and Jerusalem
David was the second King of the Hebrew nation, the leader who created a central administration, brought much of Palestine under Hebrew control and made Jerusalem the capital.  King David's chief contribution to Hebrew history was the establishment of Hebrew control over Palestine.  He was a warrior king and therefore could not build the Temple.
            3. Solomon's Temple  Solomon was the son of David, known for his wisdom, who as king of the United Hebrew Kingdom brought the nation to the heights of its economic power and built the first temple in Jerusalem. The Temple was dedicated by King Solomon in 953 BC The Israelites viewed the Temple as the symbolic center of their religion, and hence of the kingdom of Israel itself. The Temple now housed the Ark of the Covenant, the holy chest containing the sacred relics of the Hebrew religion and, symbolically, the throne of the invisible God of Israel. Under Solomon, ancient Israel was at the height of its power, but his efforts to extend royal power throughout his kingdom led to dissatisfaction among some of his subjects.

Read Prophets p. 36

      B. Divided Kingdom: Captivity and Return
The destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and the Babylonian Captivity of the Hebrews occurred at the hands of the Chaldeans.  .

After the fall of Assyrian power in Mesopotamia, the last great group of Semitic peoples dominated the area. Suffering mightily under the Assyrians, the city of Babylon finally rose up against its hated enemy, the city of Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian empire, and burned it to the ground. The chief of the Babylonians was Nabopolassar; the Semites living in the northern part of Mesopotamia would never gain their independence again.

Nabopolassar was succeeded by his son, Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BC). Nebuchadnezzar was the equal of all the great Mesopotamian conquerors, from Sargon onwards; he not only prevented major powers such as Egypt and Syria from making inroads on his territory, he also conquered the Phoenicians and the state of Judah (586 BC), the southern Jewish kingdom that remained after the subjugation of Israel, the northern kingdom, by the Assyrians. In order to secure the territory of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar brought Jehoiachin and Zedekiah, the two kings of Judah (in succession) and held them in Babylon. In keeping with Assyrian practice, the "New Babylonians," or Chaldeans forced a large part of the Jewish population to relocate. Numbering possibly up to 10,000, these Jewish deportees were largely upper class people and craftspeople; this deportation marks the beginning of the Exile in Jewish history

Under Nebuchadnezzar, the city of Babylon was rebuilt with great splendor; it would eventually become one of the most magnificent human cities in the area of the Middle East and Mediterranean. But all was not perfect beneath the shining surface; there still existed a number of cities that were loyal to the Assyrians. The entire period dominated by the Babylonians, in fact, is a period of great unrest as Babylonian hegemony was continually tested by philo-Assyrians. This conflict slammed the door on the Babylonian empire after a dynasty of only five kings. Babylon in 555 BC came under the control of a king loyal to the Assyrians, Nabonidus (555-539 BC), who attacked Babylonian culture at its heart: he placed the Assyrian moon-god, Sin, above the Babylonian's principal god, Marduk, who symbolized not only the faith of Babylon but the very city and people itself. Angered and bitter, the priests and those faithful to Babylon would welcome Cyrus the Conqueror of Persia into their city and end forever Semitic domination of Mesopotamia. The center of the Middle Eastern world shifted to Cyrus's capital, Susa, and it would shift again after the Greeks and then the Romans. For almost two and a half centuries, Mesopotamia and Babylon at its center, dominated the landscape of early civilization in the Middle East to be finally eclipsed by the rising sun of the Indo-European cultures to the north and to the west.
 

The Diaspora  when Jews became scattered throughout the ancient world after their exile to Babylon  Only then did they become merchants.

The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel

C. Spiritual Dimensions of Israel 

            I. Yahweh as God--Yahweh was the name of he Hebrews' protector, the God who gave them their law, the Being they came to believe was the only true God.

                a.  The Hebrew knew god as the creator of but not an inherent part of nature.
                b.  All peoples of the world were subject to him.
                c.  He would punish those not following His will.
                d.  There was no room for personal relationships with him, as his word was law.               

            2. Hebrew Bible: Covenant, Law, and Prophets

                a.  The Hebrew religion was an ethical religion centered around the law of God. 

                b.  The Hebrew prophets were considered by the Hebrews to be the voice of Yahweh.  The prophet Amos prophesied the fall of Israel. 

                     1.  Promoted universalism by stating that all nations would one day worship the God of Israel.
                     2.  Proclaimed that Israel would rise again from the ashes of conquest.
                     3.  Advocated social justice by condemning the rich for mistreating the poor.
                     4.  Encouraged a separation between Jews and non-Jews.

                c.  The Hebrew Bible focuses on the theme of the necessity of the Hebrews to obey their God.  The Hebrew religions tradition includes:

                        The first five books of the Hebrew Bible are known as the Pentateuch.

                      1.  the Law
TORAH (The Law):

  • Bereishith (In the beginning...) (Genesis)
  • Shemoth (The names...) (Exodus)
  • Vayiqra (And He called...) (Leviticus)
  • Bamidbar (In the wilderness...) (Numbers)
  • Devarim (The words...) (Deuteronomy)

                      2.  the covenant
This was first made with Abraham, from whom the Jewish believe they came. This covenant was renewed with Abraham's son Isaac, and Abraham's grand son Jacob.
The covenant was extended as Moses was given the Ten Commandments and other laws. From this, the Jews learn how they should lead their lives.
The covenant was an agreement which the Hebrews believed they had made with Yahweh, making them his "chosen people," which required them to follow his law and gave them a special place in history.  It gives  them certain rights as well as responsibilities.  Central in the Jewish belief is that there is only one God, and that there is a special pact between God and the Jews. Jews are obliged to observe the Law given by God. The purpose of this pact is to bring the world forward to the point where Messiah arrives in the world, in order to recreate order and stability in the world, with Jerusalem and Israel as the centre.  The central theme of Judaism, is the covenant between the Jews and God

                      3.  the prophets  Holy men who called on the nation to follow the divine law, warned them of dire consequences if they did not, and helped make Judaism a universal religion.

NEVI'IM (The Prophets):

  • Yehoshua (Joshua)
  • Shoftim (Judges)
  • Shmuel (I &II Samuel)
  • Melakhim (I & II Kings)
  • Yeshayah (Isaiah)
  • Yirmyah (Jeremiah)
  • Yechezqel (Ezekiel)
  • The Twelve (treated as one book)
    • Hoshea (Hosea)
    • Yoel (Joel)
    • Amos
    • Ovadyah (Obadiah)
    • Yonah (Jonah)
    • Mikhah (Micah)
    • Nachum
    • Chavaqquq (Habbakkuk)
    • Tzefanyah (Zephaniah)
    • Chaggai
    • Zekharyah (Zechariah)
    • Malakhi

                      4.  monotheistic -- worship of one god -- Hebrew monotheism had a spiritual legacy that included Christianity and Islam. 

      D. Social Structure of the Hebrews
            1. Men of Rank and Influence officials of the king, military officers, civil officials and governors
            2. Marriage and the Family  Patriarchal society..the husband--father was master of his wife and possessed absolute authority over his children, including the over of life and death
            3. Men and Women  The book of Proverbs contains a description of the ideal Hebrew wife.
Proverbs 31


II. Neighbors of the Israelites: Phoenicians

Canaanites settled the coast of what is now called Lebanon and established independent trading cities around 3,000 B.C. Phoenicia is a Greek term applied to the coast of Lebanon. Because the location at the intersection of land and sea routes linking the ancient world, Phoenicia became famous as a commercial center. Phoenicians discovered and used the North Star (Polaris) to keep their bearings at sea. They were the first ones to sail around Africa. They colonized parts of Cyprus and Rhodes and crossed the Black Sea. They founded Tarshish on the coast of Spain and Carthage in North Africa.  The greatest international sea traders of the ancient Near East were the Phoenicians. 
 


      A. Explorers to the West
            1.  The Phoenicians founded the colony of Carthage.
            2.  They established trading stations throughout the Mediterranean.
            3.  Byblos was a Phoenician port city located in ancient Palestine that was a distribution center for Egyptian papyrus.  The Greek word for book is derived from its name. 


            Phoenician scribe writing the Phoenician alphabet while a parrot dictates!
      B. Alphabet    --Go to Pedagogy.  Explain the importance of the phonetic system of reading.  What's the big deal?


The Phoenicians contributed a simplified alphabet and system of writing.  The Phoenician alphabetic script of 22 letters was used at Byblos as early as the 15th century B.C. This method of writing, later adopted by the Greeks, is the ancestor of the modern Roman alphabet. It was the Phoenicians' most remarkable and distinctive contribution to civilization.

Cuneiform  Writing

Hieroglyphics  See name in Hieroglyphics

Phonics


Towering winged bull guarding the entrance to the Assyrian palace, eighth-century B.C.E., at Khorsabad.


III. Assyrian Empire  After a long period of vassalage, the Assyrians achieved their independence in the 1300s.  The Assyrians overran the northern kingdom of Israel, destroyed the capital of Samaria in 722 B.C., and deported many Hebrews to other parts of the Assyrian Empire. These dispersed Hebrews (the "ten lost tribes") merged with neighboring peoples and gradually lost their identity. Eventually the Assyrian Empire fell to a coalition of Medes and Chaldeans (Neo-Babylonians) in the late seventh century.  About 2500 BC Sargon the Great made war on the Sumerians,  won and made everybody pay tribute to him.  Their chief god was Assur--the war god.

      A. Tiglath Pileser I was a brutal conqueror whose policy of deliberate terror set a pattern for later Assyrian rulers.

Shalamaneser III  Assyrian king who began a new phase of expansion marching westward into Palestine and southward into BAbylonia.  From then on there was almost continual warfare until they were conquered by the Chaldeans (Neo Babylonians) under Nabopolasser (6250

Tiglath Pileser III was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 744727 BC).Waged military campaigns almost every year, reestablishing control over Mesopotamia and completely subduing Palestine. 

Sargon II ruled from 722-755.  He fought the Medes and made war on the Egyptian pharaoh.  His army had archers, foot soldiers, shield-bearing spearsmen and horse-drawn charioteers.  If they had to cross a river they used an animal skin that he could fill with air and use as a life preserver.  His capitol was Ninevah.


      B. Ashurbanipal  --Because his lands were so vulnerable to attack fighting became a way of life for the Assyrians.  Ashurbanipal established a standing army. 

Reigned from 668 to 626 B.C. He is best known for amassing a library of literary texts including an epic of creation, the Flood and others. Modern scholars have reason to be grateful to Ashurbanipal because he was a lover of learning and collected a great library of cuneiform clay tablets (over 22,000 in number) that have given to us most of what we know of Babylonian and Assyrian literature. In Ezra 4:10, his name is also rendered "Asnapper" or "Osnapper".

He was the king who believed in God through Prophet Jonah, and spared his life and the life of Ninevites. He abandoned his glory, dignity, and greatness and humbled him self and fasted to please the God who never worshiped before.

       SennacheribWhen the Assyrian king Sennacherib, in about 700 B.C., led his army to Egypt, it camped at Pelusium. The pharaoh did not have a working army at the time, but the god Ptah advised him to draft the shopkeepers, craftsmen and market workers. The pharaoh did so and led them to Pelusium where the two sides camped for the night. In the morning the Assyrian camp discovered rodents had destroyed their leather weapons. Not only were their weapons useless, but rodents meant plague, and so the Assyrians fled, with the Egyptians pursuing.


It was Sennacherib who made Nineveh a truly magnificent city (c. 700 BC). He made sure there would be a water supply for the city of Nineveh.  He guilt a series of huge water conductors, or conduits, and aqueducts that carried water for more than thirty miles from the mountains in the north.

 



      C. Military Machine-- Iron weapons, activities of terror, superior, diversified tactics and ruthless leaders helped make Assyria an efficient military machine. The Assyrian army was able to conquer and maintain an empire due to its ability to use diversified military tactics.  The Assyrians' use of terror tactics and atrocities especially targeted inhabitants of the empire who rebelled against Assyrian rule.

      D. Society and Culture

 In Assyria, the king's power was absolute; they were the vicars of the Assyrian god Ashur. Assyrian society was well known for its assimilation of other cultures and development of a polyglot society.  Language, religious practices, the king and the army were all unifying forces in Assyrian society.  Mainly agricultural.  Religion was a cohesive force.  Strongly masculine world where discipline, brute force and toughness are the enduring values..the values of the Assyrian military monarchy.

            1. Free and Non-free


            2. Agriculture and Trade
                a.  Agriculture based on farming villages was the principal economic basis of Assyrian society. 


            3. Relief Sculpture--Assyrian art was primarily concerned with glorifying the king, hunting and war. 


 IV. Neo-Babylonian Empire--The most tolerant and efficient of the Near Eastern empires was the Persian. 

      A. Nebuchadnezzar II--acnieved the final defeat of the Assyrian empire, defeated Egypt to gain control of Syria and Palestine, destroyed Jeruselem, carried the people of Judah into exile into Babylon.

The Bible records that it was Nebuchadnezzar who destroyed Jerusalem, brought the kingdom of Judah to an end, and carried off the Jews into exile.

      B. Grand City of Babylon--King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon dedicated the great Ishtar Gate to the goddess Ishtar. It was the main entrance into Babylon. King Nebuchadnezzar II performed elaborate building projects in Babylon around 604-562 BC. His goal was to beautify his capital. He restored the temple of Marduk, the chief god, and also built himself a magnificent palace with the famous Hanging Gardens, which was reported by the Greek historian Herodotus to have been one of the wonders of the world.  Babylon was the cite of the second Hebrew captivity. 

 .
 

Three of the 120 lions along the "Processional Way" to the Ishtar Gate, the grandiose entrance to Babylon, built in the 6th century B.C.E. by Nebuchadnezzar II.

 

 V. Persian Empire--The Persian professional army was very large compared to other ancient armies and relied upon mercenaries.


       A. Cyrus the Great--Founder of the Persian Empire and a member of the Achaemenid dynasty. He founded Persia by uniting the two original Iranian Tribes- the Medes and the Persians. Although he was known to be a great conqueror, who at one point controlled one of the greatest Empires ever seen, he is best remembered for his unprecedented tolerance and magnanimous He was the Persian king who brought most of the near east under one government, a man whose mercy to conquered peoples earned him widespread respect and gave him in history the title "Cyrus the Great."  When he conquered Babylon, he did so to cheers from the Jewish Community, who welcomed him as a liberator- he allowed the Jews to return to the promised Land.

Dashing Persian Army
             I. Control of Media
             2. Conquest of Lydia
             3. Victory over Babylon
             4. Freedom for the Hebrews


       B. Expanding the Persian Empire


             1. Cambyses--the Persian conqueror of Egypt

Later Cambyses used another animal trick to take Pelusium and Egypt from the Egyptians. In front of his troops he put up a shield of animals worshiped by the Egyptians, including cats and ibexes. The Egyptians backed down and were defeated.

             2. Darius  replaced Susa as capital with Persepolis

Darius was not merely an administrator and, after curbing several rebellions in various parts of the empire during his first year in power, he also continued the politic of expansion of his ancestors, toward the east in India, as well as toward the west and Europe, starting with Thracia. In 499, some Ionian Greek cities of the satrapy of Lydia, under the leadership of Aristagoras of Miletus, rebelled against the Persians and set fire to Sardis. It was not until 494, with the naval victory of the Persian fleet at Lade, off the shores of Miletus, and the recapture of Miletus, that the rebellion was completely curbed. Having thus subdued the Ionian Greeks, Darius set out to conquer the rest of Greece, which led to the first Persian War. But his troops were stopped by the Athenians at the battle of Marathon in 490 (Herodotus' Histories (VI, 102-120). It was left to his son Xerxes to lead a second attempt in 480, with no more success (2nd Persian War).

The "kings eye" was an official who made annual inspections of each satrapy.

Coins in Lydia  More

 


             3. Confrontation with the Greeks--The historian of the Persian wars was Herodotus.

       C. Governing the Empire

             1. Satrapies    Satrapies were administrative divisions of the Persian Empire, organized to solve local problems but subservient to the central government, inspected by visitors called "the king's eyes."
             2.  Communication and Transportation         
             3.  Army    
       D.  Persian Religion
            1.  Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism

Zoroaster was the semi-legendary founder of Persia's most influential religion, which emphasized an ongoing struggle between good and bad divinities. 

Zoroastrianism stressed the free will and power of humans to choose between good and evil.    The central sacred text of Zoroastrianism is Zend AvestaIn Zoroastrianism the evil spirit was known as Ahriman.  The sun god, who became a helper of Ahuramazda and later, in Roman times, the source of another religion was
Mithra. 

            2.  Dualism: Ahuramazda and Abriman  Ahuramazda was the true or good god of Zoroastrianism, the opponent of the evil god Ahriman, the eventual victor in the battle for supremacy, the final judge of men.  Those who had performed good deeds would achieve paradise "the House of Song" "the Kingdom of Good Thought."
            3.  Mithra and Mithraism

Identifications:
1. Hittites
2. Hebrews
3. monotheism
4. Moses
5. Hebrew Bible
6. the Exodus
7.Yahweh
8. Saul
9. David
10. Solomon
11. the Temple
12. Jerusalem
13. prophets
14. the Pentateuch
15. Torah
16. the Divided Kingdom
17. the Assyrians and the kingdom of Israel
18. Babylonian captivity of the Jews
19. the covenant
20. Phoenicians
21. Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon
22. Phoenician alphabet
23. Assyrians
24. Tiglath-Pileser I
25. Ashurbanipal and Sennacherib
26. Nimrud and Nineveh
27. Ashur
28. Chaldeans and Medes
29. Neo-Babylonian Empire
30. Nebuchadnezzar II
31. Hanging Gardens of Babylon
32. Persians
33. Archaemenid dynasty
34. Ishtar Gate
35. Cyrus the Great
36. Herodotus
37. Cambyses II
38. Darius
39. Susa and Persepolis
40. satrapy
41. the Royal Road
42. the "king's eye"
43. Zoroaster
44. Ahuramazda
45. Magi
46. the Zend Avesta
47. Ahriman
48. the House of Song

Send comments and questions to Sharman Ramsey, Gulf Coast Community College